Schlenker, Philippe. 2010. "Indexicals" [Short Survey]. Written for the Handbook of Formal Philosophy, edited by Sven Ove Hansson and Vincent F. Hendricks.

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Abstract:   We offer a brief survey of indexicals in natural language. Starting from a modal logic with time and world parameters, we focus on five questions: (i) What parameters should be added to account for indexicals? (ii) Why do indexicals often seem to be 'scopeless'? (iii) Why do some sentences that are intuitively a priori true (e.g. I exist) become false when prefixed with necessarily ?(iv) What determines the cognitive significance of sentences with indexicals? (v) Can this cognitive significance be fully conveyed in attitude reports?