Schlenker, Philippe. 2003. "A Plea for Monsters" (not the final version; the final version appeared in Linguistics & Philosophy  26: 29-120. 2003)

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Abstract:  Kaplan claims in Demonstratives that no operator may manipulate the context of evaluation of natural language indexicals. We show that this is  not so. In fact, attitude reports always manipulate a context parameter (or, rather, a context variable). This is shown by (i) the existence of De Se readings of attitude reports in English (which Kaplan has no account for), and (ii) the existence of a variety of indexicals across languages whose point of evaluation can be shifted, but only in attitude reports. We develop an alternative account within an extensional framework with overt quantification over times, worlds and contexts. Various typological facts are discussed, esp. the distinction between English, Amharic and Ewe pronouns,  and that between English and Russian tenses.