**Schlenker, Philippe. 2006. "Anti-Dynamics: Presupposition Projection
Without Dynamic Semantics"**. Manuscript, UCLA & Institut Jean-Nicod.

[Full
paper in pdf]

*Abstract:* Heim 1983 suggested that the analysis of presupposition
projection requires that the classical notion of meanings as truth conditions
be replaced with a dynamic notion of meanings as Context Change Potentials.
But as several researchers [including Heim herself] later noted, the dynamic
framework is insufficiently predictive: it allows us to state that, say, the
dynamic effect of *F and G* is to first update a Context Set C with
*F* and then with *G* (i.e. C[F and G] = C[F][G]), but it fails
to explain why there couldn’t be a ‘deviant’ conjunction *and** which
performed these operations in the opposite order (i.e. C[F and* G] = C[G][F]).
We provide a formal introduction to a competing framework, the Transparency
Theory (Schlenker 2006), which addresses this problem. Unlike dynamic semantics,
our analysis is fully classical, i.e. bivalent and static. And it derives
the projective behavior of connectives from their bivalent meaning and their
syntax. We concentrate on the formal properties of a simple version of the
theory, and we prove that (i) full equivalence with Heim’s results is guaranteed
in the propositional case (Theorem 1), and that (ii) the equivalence
can be extended to the quantificational case (for any generalized quantifiers),
but only when certain conditions are met (Theorem 2).