Anouk Dieuleveut, Emmanuel Chemla & Benjamin Spector (2016). “Weak and Strong Quantity Implicatures - An experimental investigation”.

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Experiment 1 Experiment 2 Experiment 3 (dual task)
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Abstract: An utterance of Some of the cards are hearts usually triggers the inference that the speaker does not have the belief that all cards are hearts (primary scalar implicature). It often licenses a stronger inference: the speaker believes not all cards are hearts (secondary SI). Previous experimental studies were not designed to detect three distinct readings (literal reading, primary implicature, secondary implicature), but only the existence of a strengthened reading on top of the literal reading. We present an experimental paradigm that is able to detect three distinct readings. Our results suggest that the strong reading is accessible even when the speaker is not presented as being well-informed, contrary to the predictions of standard pragmatic Gricean accounts, thereby supporting the alternative ‘grammatical approach’ to SIs. Furthermore, we use our paradigm to test items whose interpretation has been argued to involve SIs, but for which this conclusion is controversial: almost, numerals and plural morphology.